Thursday, November 28, 2019
A review and evaluation of a literary text chosen by the student for an audience unfamiliar with it. Steinbeck - THE PEARL
A review and evaluation of a literary text chosen by the student for an audience unfamiliar with it. Steinbeck - THE PEARL -meant to be a short reviewJohn Steinbeck's "The Pearl" said to be "a brutal story with flashes of beauty" by the author himself, is a rather depressing novella about wealth and the evil it attracts despite those wanting to use it for the greater good.Written in 1944, it was influenced and inspired by a number of sources. The basic plot was adapted from the "Sea of Cortez" an earlier narrative Steinbeck wrote during the spring of 1940, an idyllic period of his life, when he and a friend sailed around the Baja region on the west coast of America. Steinbeck also used his own experiences and opinions in "The Pearl". After the success of "Grapes of Wrath" Steinbeck was subjected to hate mail, FBI scrutiny and slanderous criticism because of the revolutionary way he exposed the harsh reality of the imbalance of wealth in American society. This backlash of fame and fortune sent Steinbeck on a personal quest where he had to come to terms with what being wealthy and famous meant and he reali sed that he was dissatisfied with the growing dog-eat-dog capitalistic American attitude, the materialism that stemmed from it and as well as the pressure to support a system i.e132 Central Avenue, Salinas, California, the home ...the American government and society, that oppressed the poor. As a result of his personal questioning in addition to his more simplistic previous attempt, Steinbeck laid the foundation for "the Pearl". Through his story Steinbeck brings to light themes such as the human instinct of greed or selfishness, the corrupting influences of wealth, the advantages the wealthy have over the poor, importance of family or community and fighting for one's dreams."The Pearl" is often seen to be parable-like or allegorical in nature because of the morality underlying the story. However, being allegorical in...
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Pros and Cons of Abortion in Modern Society Introduction: Ã¢â¬Å"In 1973 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Roe vs. Wade (410 U.S. 113) that a right of personal privacy exists under the constitution and this right includes a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy (Haas-Wilson, 140).Ã¢â¬ It was believed that this court ruling would end public debate over abortion. Instead, it has fueled controversy and debate, which have continued over the last thirty years. On one side, there are the pro-choice supporters. These individuals base their argument on a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s right to choose how and when she will reproduce. On the other side of this argument are pro-life supporters. They argue on the basis of morality and right to life for the unborn child. Somewhere in the middle of these two extremes is where most Americans fall. Those who are Ã¢â¬Å"on the fenceÃ¢â¬ often qualify their support of abortion by the circumstances surrounding the pregnancy. In this essay, I will explore the three views of abortion and their e ffect on my personal opinion. First, I will discuss the history of abortion laws. Second, I will outline the reasons why women choose to have abortions. Third, I will explain the pro-choice argument. Fourth, I will explain the pro-life argument. Fifth, I will discuss the middle of the road views and their impact. Sixth, I will discuss my personal views on abortion. Seventh, and finally, I will conclude with a summary of my main points. History of Abortion: Ã¢â¬Å"The history of abortion law represents a complicated process of various tendencies working towards and against the legality of abortion (Deflem, 787).Ã¢â¬ Prior to the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, abortion was regulated as being a crime except in circumstances where the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s life was in danger. In some states, including Pennsylvania, however, this rare exception was not even cause for termination of pregnancy. In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, several states passed more liberal ... Free Essays on Abortion In Modern Society Free Essays on Abortion In Modern Society Pros and Cons of Abortion in Modern Society Introduction: Ã¢â¬Å"In 1973 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Roe vs. Wade (410 U.S. 113) that a right of personal privacy exists under the constitution and this right includes a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy (Haas-Wilson, 140).Ã¢â¬ It was believed that this court ruling would end public debate over abortion. Instead, it has fueled controversy and debate, which have continued over the last thirty years. On one side, there are the pro-choice supporters. These individuals base their argument on a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s right to choose how and when she will reproduce. On the other side of this argument are pro-life supporters. They argue on the basis of morality and right to life for the unborn child. Somewhere in the middle of these two extremes is where most Americans fall. Those who are Ã¢â¬Å"on the fenceÃ¢â¬ often qualify their support of abortion by the circumstances surrounding the pregnancy. In this essay, I will explore the three views of abortion and their effect on my personal opinion. First, I will discuss the history of abortion laws. Second, I will outline the reasons why women choose to have abortions. Third, I will explain the pro-choice argument. Fourth, I will explain the pro-life argument. Fifth, I will discuss the middle of the road views and their impact. Sixth, I will discuss my personal views on abortion. Seventh, and finally, I will conclude with a summary of my main points. History of Abortion: Ã¢â¬Å"The history of abortion law represents a complicated process of various tendencies working towards and against the legality of abortion (Deflem, 787).Ã¢â¬ Prior to the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, abortion was regulated as being a crime except in circumstances where the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s life was in danger. In some states, including Pennsylvania, however, this rare exception was not even cause for termination of pregnancy. In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, several states passed more liberal ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
How relative clauses are formed by this (Ki)swahili - Essay Example A number of statistical observations have also been undertaken in the paper wherever relevant examples have been given. Herein, one needs to understand that the formation pattern of Kiswahili language is not like the European language where formation is based on one approach. The dependency of the noun class is highly on the morpheme when it comes to clause formation in Kiswahili language. Following are the two examples of clause formation in English language and Kiswahili language. It should be noted that the Kiswahili person was a former graduate student who was also paid an amount for helping the elicitation. It was made evident that for the need of reporting, a thorough closure of the language was needed. Therefore, Swahili was instructed to speak with a normal pace or preferably slow. This report has been directed towards the readers who have little or no language of the Swahili language. It will allow the readers to form a basis of analysis for the later part of the report. Speaking of morphology of the language, Swahili has three types of verb constructions. In order to quickly understand the way in which relative clauses are constructed, it is significant to understand the elements (Schadeberg, Mucanheia, & Heine, 2000). The tenses are marked as Na, li, taka, and si respectively. As per the mentioned study of (Schadeberg, Mucanheia, & Heine, 2000), it can be asserted that the elicitation used all the structures of the relative clause as mentioned above. However, the first structure of sentence remains missing from the elicitation. Most of the sentences from the elicitations used tenses for which it falls in the category of second sentence formation while remaining aligned with the C structure of the relative clause formation. Overall, while analyzing the sentences from the elicitation, it was noted that the first 85 sentences were formed by using the second type of clause formation. The relative clause in majority within the elicitation
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Examining Barriers to effective physical health care management of people with schizophrenia - Literature review Example same to different factors such as the association between mental and physical illnesses and the complications resulting from the mental illness itself following persistent use of medication. Schizophrenia patients and other mentally ill patients often suffer many physical health-related problems. Various studies on the interaction between physical health and mental health indicate psychiatric patients often endure physical health complications. In their article, Heggelund et al (2011) posited that most of the patients with Schizophrenia and major depression often suffer from cardiovascular and respiratory disease. The authours attribute the occurrence of these diseases in these patients to higher rates of smoking. In addition, Harrison and Gill (2010) suggest that the people with Schizophrenia experience poor dietary habits, poor living conditions and cognitive impairment among others. Heggelund et al. (2011) observed that patients suffering from Schizophrenia tended to gain weight and become obese. A research conducted by Brown and Mitchel (2012) showed that the incidence of obesity was high in Schizophrenia patients, accounting for up to 42% compared with 27% of the general population. The high percentage of Schizophrenia patients developing obese has thus been a key physical concern largely because it leads to the development of diabetes among other diseases. The tendency by the Schizophrenia patients to become obese has been attributed to different factors. In their article, Connolly and Kelly (2005) suggested that one of such factors is because the patients, in many cases, consume poor diets that are rich in fat and low fibre content without any consideration of the health implication. The authors also argue that these patients tend to lead a sedentary life, and this often reflects symptoms such as apathy and somnolence. The accumulation of calories in their bodies coupled with poor diet and lack of regular exercise serve as the predisposing factors for
Monday, November 18, 2019
Forensic Botany - Essay Example There are issues of specificity, profile complexity, and reproducibility that lead to the rejection of botanical evidence in courts. Moreover, a higher number of samples, translating to the urgency for analysis to yield quality and quantity have often yielded poor DNA making analysis less effective (Hall, Byrd, & Wiley InterScience, 2012). These factors usually introduce new challenges in the identification of evidence in forensic botany. Scientists have identified the fact that most of the evidence comes in mixed proportions, complicating the analysis process. Therefore, this heightens the need to develop techniques that have the potential of sorting out the mixed samples to present specific evidence. Such effective methods will help investigators rely on botanical evidence that is subject to being discarded in the current days. The development of numerous techniques used in DNA profiling has served to lay a hope for the possibility of better approaches of identification that yield evidence that is dependable in courts. Apparently, an effective DNA analysis technique for use in forensic botany must meet certain requirements. The approach must have the potential of establishing distinct differences between individual species irrespective of a high correlation. Moreover, it should have the capacity to handle robust amounts of samples (Bock, & Norris, 2008). An additional requirement of immense criticality is the fact that the technique must exhibit the potential of positively analyzing degraded plant materials. Although scientists have made progress in developing tools with the capacity to satisfy the above described requirements, only a few of the developed techniques have the potential of meeting all the... The development of numerous techniques used in DNA profiling has served to lay a hope for the possibility of better approaches to identification that yield evidence that is dependable in courts. Apparently, an effective DNA analysis technique for use in forensic botany must meet certain requirements. The approach must have the potential of establishing distinct differences between individual species irrespective of a high correlation. Moreover, it should have the capacity to handle robust amounts of samples. An additional requirement of immense criticality is the fact that the technique must exhibit the potential of positively analyzing degraded plant materials. Although scientists have made progress in developing tools with the capacity to satisfy the above-described requirements, only a few of the developed techniques have the potential of meeting all the requirements. However, the short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Moreover, bar coding has emer ged for better analysis in the future.Specialists are usually very keen in making sure that collection of samples follows a standard procedure. The collection is a critical step because the seizure of the samples of interest occurs at this point. Prior to the collection of the intended samples, there is a need for a specialist to embark on an effective recognition procedure, before collection of the sample accurate recognition serves as the initial step in the dependence of forensic botany in identifying any sort of crime.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Assessing Selective Human Genetic Engineering Nora Sheskey Selective Genetic Engineering For millions of years, genetic selection has been the result of natural selection. Who someone is, natural abilities, physical characteristics, and a wide range of other personal attributes were the result of genetic recombination and accidental mutation. Furthermore, children are often born with hereditary conditions which are set by factors we have no control over. However, the advent of modern medicine has brought us to the brink of a time when we can choose to redirect nature and repair maladies in children, where we can artificially modify the very codes which guide their looks, which diseases they are resistant to, and even their personalities. Considering the facts concerning genetic engineering, the benefits which can be achieved far outweigh the potential risks with regard to both the reduction in human suffering and the likely increase in lifespan. The opponents of human genetic engineering often refer to a number of dangers involved in artificially manipulating genetic codes which result in such medical issues as DownÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome, Hemophilia, and even anxiety and stress. With the completion of the Genome project, we can now more accurately map the human DNA than ever before, identifying the locations of defects that cause many of the maladies that have plagued mankind for millennia. Opponents of genetic manipulation are quick to point out that a slight error in the manipulation process can result in changing other sequences that could result in unforeseen and undesired effects. For instance, researcher Russell Powell has speculated that human genetic engineering might result in a lower genetic diversity which could lead to future generations that are more prone to having some types of diseases and which could, potentially, lead to the human race becoming extinct. Part of his research showed how genetic manipulation of cr ops in order to increase the availability of desirable crops increased the likelihood of catastrophic crop failure due to those crops becoming less genetically diverse over time and having reduced resistance to environmental factors which a wider genetic base would have prevented. He studied how such factors led to the nineteenth century Irish Potato Famine and how the organism Phytophthora was able to decimate much of the potato crop in Ireland due to this reduction in genetic diversity because of the farming methods in use in that region during that period of history. His research demonstrates that by reducing human genetic diversity through such techniques as genetic manipulation those human beings could set themselves up for a similar fate (Powell, R. 2012, pp. 204-5). Also, the work of Charles Gillespie, et. al., into how genetics affect the human stress response found that stress related genetic mutations in developing human fetuses increased the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s susceptibi lity to disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder later in life. They found that natural genetic manipulation due to a change in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal balance lead to an increase in susceptibility to stress related disorders in the associated human beings (Gillespie, C. F., 2009, p. 990). Opponents of genetic manipulation point out that accidentally manipulating the incorrect gene sequences could result in the same type of condition. Opponents use facts such as these in their outspoken aversion to the practice. Proponents of genetic engineering rebut the opponents by pointing out that the benefits of curing medical issues like DownÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome and Hemophilia far outweigh the possible risks. They counter the opposition with a number of research studies. As part of his research, Powell determined that human genetic diversity is due to a combination of both mutation and recombination (Powell, R. 2012, pp. 215). He found that a number of different phenotypes can result from a single genotype which led him to conclude that accidental activation of inactive or incorrect sequences is unlikely to produce feared dramatic issues often spoken of by human genetic manipulation opponents. Additionally, he found that focusing on only DNA adaptive variation involved in human genetic manipulation would not result in an extensive homogenization of the human DNA feared by opponents and that other environmental factors play a significant part in human genetic diversity (Powell, R. 2012, pp. 207-8). In ad dition, Gordon and Hen found that properly utilized genetic manipulation can provide many useful results with an acceptable margin of safety. They studied twins to determine how anxiety response is genetically associated and how DNA sequencing and correction could help to treat the condition. They document that comparisons of fraternal and identical twins showed that 30% to 50% of risk of developing anxiety disorders comes from genetic factors with the remainder being attributed to environmental causes. They also used studies of rats and mice to show that anxiety is a genetic condition and could be treatable using genetic manipulation techniques (Gordon, J. A., Hen, R., 2004, pp. 195-6) Opponents of human genetic engineering further turn to natural selection in their opposition to the practice. They point out that altering how nature and evolution have brought things about can have unintended consequences. As evidence of this, they look at the research of Richard A. Miller. Miller found that manipulating certain genes associated with aging in what he refers to as UM-HET3 mice, a group of 1800 specimens, sometimes actually shortened rather than lengthened the average lifespan as well as hastened the onset of reduced cognitive abilities in the mice which received such treatments. He additionally found that when other specific genetic sequences were modified, the result was an increase in the occurrence of and age at which cancer occurred in some cases. His research also showed that not only could the aging process be sped up due to genetic manipulation but could also increase the severity of old age issues. Additionally, some of the traits which occurred later in life could not be detected in the early stages of life. Miller found that these traits affected a number of aspects such as bones, eyes, hormones, weight, and what kills the individual. Miller eventually admits that there are things which nature has brought about which we cannot yet reproduce in the laboratory and opponents of genetic manipulation question if such research is worth the risks (Miller, R.A., 2005, pp.S284-5) Opponents of genetic engineering also refer to the work of Brown who examined that practice from a viewpoint of Rawlsian Justice. He points out that such a practice still needs to be considered from both a moral and a legal framework. He states that Ã¢â¬Å"The important point is that until now, theories of justice have regarded oneÃ¢â¬â¢s genetic endowment as a fixed fact of nature rather than as a matter of justice.Ã¢â¬ He indicates that manipulating individuals alters their right to have an equal claim to the same equalities and fair equalities as others. The o pponents of genetic manipulation take the viewpoint that altering who has what rights is inherently wrong and does not actually improve the overall human condition (Brown, 2007, pp. 83-84) Proponents of human genetic engineering, on the other hand, believe that we, as human beings, are finally able to improve on that which nature has brought about after millions of years of evolution. They point out that nature has evolved such things as cancer and shortened lifespans in their support for genetic manipulation. They also look to the work of Miller and say that in spite of some cases where the lifespan was indeed shortened that in many other cases the lifespan is nonetheless longer. Their viewpoint is that by performing an analysis of the differences between DNA of the long and short lived mice that researchers will be able to eventually track down which genes do lead to longer lives. Miller himself states that there are genes which influence the age at which the various mice die, such as a pair of genes on chromosomes 2 and 16, which lead to mice living up to 173 days longer than mice that do not have this particular DNA sequence. Likewise, Miller states that there are also DNA sequences which also affect the age at which certain cancers occur in some of the mice in his study. He goes on to say that his research indicates that there may be Ã¢â¬Å"a specific aging process that we can learn enough about to modify or prevent.Ã¢â¬ Miller ends his paper by stating Ã¢â¬Å"Will genetic manipulation or pharmacologic agents suggested by genetic research offer a realistic possibility of life expectancy at birth of 110 or 120 or more years? Twenty years ago, this was a science fiction question, but no more, and it is interesting to speculate based on current evidence. I believe the answer is yes.Ã¢â¬ (Miller, R.A., 2005, pp. S284-5) After having examined information from both those opposed to and those in favor of human genetic manipulation, we can most certainly say that both sides have some strong arguments in favor of their viewpoints. Those opposed to the practice would appear to come from a traditional perspective, fearing the changes necessary in order to make the necessary strides that will be required in order to bring about substantial gains to be realized from genetic engineering. Taking history as a guiding principle, they see how the best intentions often result in severe negative results before gains can be realized. They see in the work of researchers like Gordon and Hen, Miller, Powell, and Gillespie the backing to state that the possible gains are either not possible or are not warranted by the necessary costs that will be imposed. The proponents of the practice of human genetic engineering believe that any time we can relieve human suffering and eradicate disease that the benefits outweigh the c osts. They are motivated by the belief that any change which improves the human condition is worth the risks and that any time we can repair genetic defects that we are doing humanity a much needed service, even when that service means that we alter the very codes which determine who a person is. They acknowledge the risks posed but believe that a future without birth defects, without DownÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome, and without other such genetically linked issues is worth risking for. They find in the works of Miller, Powell, Gillespie, and Gordon and Hen an exciting roadmap to a world where human suffering based on the genetic structure has been eliminated. Personally, I am inclined to agree with those who say that we must go boldly forward and take the necessary risks in order to improve the human condition in every way possible. History has shown us that such journeys are not without risk but almost always inevitably prove beneficial to future generations. If we are to let fear guide us, we would have never developed such medical miracles as penicillin, the polio vaccine, or the heart transplant. No valiant effort in human history has ever come without costs and moving forward with research in genetic manipulation is sure to impose upon mankind the same kinds of costs imposed by the research of Pasteur, Salk, and Fleming. Mankind has never been the type to simply not advance and the next frontier would appear to be human genetic engineering. In conclusion, we have finally come to an age in human history where we can choose to modify the very codes that define who we are and how we develop. We can decide whether to allow such disorders as DownÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome, Hemophilia, and severe anxiety to continue to plague the human race. The advent of modern medicine has brought us to the brink of a time when we can choose to redirect nature and repair maladies in children, modifying the very codes which guide their looks, which diseases they are resistant to, and even their personalities. The opponents of genetic manipulation believe that the risks involved far outweigh the potential gains. The proponents believe that we cannot let fear hold us back from improving the human condition in any way we can. So, considering the facts concerning genetic engineering, we can at this point say that based on the research and evidence at hand, the benefits which can be achieved far outweigh the potential risks with regard to both the reduct ion in human suffering and the likely increase in lifespan. Works Cited Brown, J. S. (2001). Genetic Manipulation in Humans as a Matter of Rawlsian Justice. Social Theory and Practice, 27(1), 83-110. Gillespie, C. F, Gillespie, J, Phifer, B, et al. (2009). Risk and resilience: Genetic and environmental influences on development of the stress response. Depression and anxiety (1091-4239), 26(11), 984-992. Gordon, J. A., Hen, R. (2004). Genetic Approaches to the Study of Anxiety. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27(1), 193-222. Miller, R A. (2005). Genetic Approaches to the Study of Aging. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53S284-S286. Powell, R. (2012). The Evolutionary Biological Implications of Human Genetic Engineering. Journal of Medicine Philosophy, 37(3), 204-225. Ã
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
In 1984 Transportation Secretary Elizabeth Dole lobbied for all states to raise the legal drinking age from eighteen to twenty-one. The consequence for a state not raising the age was to lose a portion of their federal highway funding. I personally believe that the drinking age being twenty-one is just like when the voting age was twenty-one, if I can go to war and die for my country, then I should be able to go to the bar and buy a beer. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the biggest problems in our society is under age drinking. They tell us how we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t allowed to drink, that we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t old enough or mature enough to do it, but the more adults talk about it, the more teenagers want to do it. When a kid goes off to college, itÃ¢â¬â¢s expected that he is going to drink. Since most kids donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what a hangover feels like, or what itÃ¢â¬â¢s like to get the spins, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know their limits and when they need to stop. That is when you get people doing stupid things because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know any better. The most important thing for a young drinker to know is his or her limit. Any eighteen year old can drink responsibly if they have a little bit of experience. Unfortunately most parents donÃ¢â¬â¢t want their kids to drink, so we have to learn the hard way without anyone there to tell us to slow down or to stop. For some kids that means getting sick one night and realizing that they shou ldnÃ¢â¬â¢t drink that much next time, but for some others the idea just never hits them, and they drink too much and that is when the trouble starts. Last Saturday night a friend of mine drank too much while she was out camping. She started to pass out and was puking all over herself. The more experienced kids in the group realized that she was in trouble and they rushed her back to campus where we were able to get her cleaned off and taken care of for the night. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Many people argue that when the drinking age was raised to twenty-one, that alcohol related deaths among people under twenty-one dropped from 43% to 21%. What they donÃ¢â¬â¢t tell you is that alcohol related deaths among people between the ages of twenty-one and twenty-five went up almost as much as the other group went down. Experience is the biggest tool in fighting the problems with underage drinking. The kid who goes to college without ever having gotten drunk is going to go all out at his or her first par... ...er curfews or can stay at a friendÃ¢â¬â¢s house. This next piece of information is based on my personal opinion and experiences. For a high school student, alcohol is very hard to get. Some kids get lucky and have older siblings or friends who will buy it for them. For almost everyone else at that age, alcohol is not a big part of their everyday life, and they turn to a much easier to get substance. Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs by high school students. It is a lot easier to get than alcohol, and for most kids it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem as dangerous. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t wake up with a hangover, and you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t as impaired as you are when you are drunk. Most kids will drive when they are high and not even think twice about it. There are many reasons why the drinking age should be lowered to eighteen, and there are many reasons why it should stay twenty-one. There is proof that both sides of the argument work. In other countries without a drinking age or with a lowered one, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t hear about as many drunk driving accidents as you do in the United States. Maybe the drinking in the U.S. is just like the violence, as Michael Moore put it, whatÃ¢â¬â¢s so different about us that makes it happen?